Education level: Data on education levels are based on the International Standard Classification System of Education Levels (ISCED97), although the situation may differ among countries.

  • Pre-primary education (ISCED 0): children aged 3–5 or 3–6; excludes nursery provision for children aged 0–2.
  • Basic education (ISCED 1/2): ‘compulsory schooling’ or ‘elementary schooling’, normally lasts from age 6/7 to age 14/15; often divided into primary and lower secondary levels.
  • General secondary (ISCED 3A): 2–4-year programmes in general secondary schools (gymnasia, lyceum) designed mainly to lead pupils to a deeper understanding of a subject, preparing pupils (not necessarily) for further education at the same level (ISCED 3B) or higher level (ISCED 5A). In CIS countries, this level normally comprises the two or three upper classes of the comprehensive school, while in CEE countries it involves longer programmes at separate institutions.
  • Vocational/technical education (ISCED 3B/3C): IISCED 3B programmes cover education that prepares for entry into specific occupations or direct access to higher education (ISCED 5B). ISCED 3C programmes prepare participants for labour or for entry into further vocational/technical education (ISCED 3B).
  • Post-secondary non-tertiary education (ISCED 4): these programmes can not be regarded as tertiary programmes, they are often not significantly more advanced than ISCED 3 but serve to broaden the knowledge of participants who have already completed a programme at level 3.
  • Tertiary education (ISCED 5): tertiary programmes with a more advanced educational content than levels 3–4; entry requires successful completion of ISCED level 3A/3B or a similar qualification at ISCED level 4A or 4B. Programmes at level 5 must have a cumulative theoretical duration of at least 2 years from the beginning of level 5 and do not lead directly to the award of an advanced research qualification (those programmes are at level ISCED 6).

'Early childhood' is usually defined as before the age of normal schooling which in general differ between countries. However, here we consider theoretical starting age 0 and ending age 2.

Classroom teachers: (OECD definition) includes professional personnel education teachers; and other teachers who work with students as a whole class in a classroom, in small groups in a resource room, or one-on-one inside or outside a regular classroom. It includes chairpersons of departments whose duties include some amount of student instruction. The category does not include student teachers, teachers’ aides, or paraprofessionals.

Pupil-teacher ratio: is the number of pupils enrolled in a specific ISCED level divided by the number of teachers of the reference ISCED level.

Net enrolment rate: is based on the number of children in a specified age group (as defined by the national education system) enrolled in a given level of education divided by the total population in that age group.

Primary adjusted net enrolment rate (ANER): Total number of pupils of the official school age group who are enrolled at primary or secondary education levels, expressed as a percentage of the primary population.

Gross enrolment ratio: is based on the number of children, regardless of age, enrolled in a given level of education divided by number of population in the age group specified for the same level of education.( Total enrolment in a specific level of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year.)

Net intake rate: The number of new entrants in the first grade of primary education who are of the theoretical primary school entrance age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the same age.

Survival rate: The percentage of a cohort of pupils (or students) enrolled in the first grade of a given level or cycle of education in a given school year who are expected to reach a given grade, regardless of repetition. Survival rates are calculated on the basis of the reconstructed cohort method, which uses data on enrolment and repeaters for two consecutive years.

Percentage of private enrolment: The number of pupils at a given level of education enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a non-governmental organization, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils or students enrolled at the given level of education.

Primary dropout rate: Enrolment by grade for school year t and enrolment and number of repeaters by grade for year t+1.

Lower secondary dropout rate: see primary dropout rate.

Out-of school children (ISCED 1 and ISCED 2): are the number of primary-school-age children not enrolled in primary or secondary school.

Percentage of repeaters: The number of pupils or students who are enrolled in the same grade (or level) as the previous year, expressed as a percentage of the total enrolment in the given grade (or level) of education.

Young people neither in employment nor in education and training (NEET): corresponds to the percentage of the population of a given age group and sex who is not employed and not involved in further education or training.

The numerator of the indicator refers to persons who meet bothof the following conditions:

  • they are not employed (i.e. neither unemployed nor inactive according to the International Labour Organisation definition) and
  • they have not received any education or training in the four weeks preceding the survey.

The denominator in the total population consists of the same age group and sex, excluding the respondents who have not answered the question 'participation to regular education and training'.

Source of data: Labour Force Survey or a survey similar to the LFS and available in the country. Living Standard Measurement Surveys can be a relevant source of information. Both the numerators and the denominators come from the Survey. Population of the relevant group and sex can be taken (for denominator) from the administrative sources only as an exception.


Population = Inactive + Employed + Unemployed
Labour Force = Employed + Unemployed

Employed Unemployed Inactive
Employed Unemployed Participate in formal or non-formal education and training Outside education

NEFTare defined as youth "neither in employment nor in any education nor training'.

This definition of NEFT includes:
- Unemployed persons (according to ILO definition) not in any education and training;
- Inactive persons (ILO definition) not in any education and training.

In other words, "not employed" includes both unemployed and inactive, with "not in any education or training" meaning that persons that are employed and/or follow formal or non-formal education are not considered to be NEFT.

Employed Unemployed Participate in formal or non-formal education and training Outside education
Employed Participate in formal or non-formal education and training Unemployed Outside education
Employed Participate in formal or non-formal education and training NEFT

The main NEET indicator covers the age group 15-24. For analytical purposes the indicator is broken down by sex and available for different age groups (15-17 / 15-19 / 15 – 24/ 15 – 34 / 18 – 24 / 20-24 / 20 – 34 / 25-29). Breakdowns by labour market status (unemployed, inactive) and education level (at most lower secondary attainment/at least upper secondary attainment) are also available (with breakdowns by educational attainment to be used from age 18 as teens aged 15-17 are typically below the age by which upper secondary education can be reached).

The NEET indicator is calculated by using data from the European Labour Force Survey under observation of established rules for statistical quality and reliability. The data are available at Eurostat's publicly accessible online database (see: under the domain "Population and social conditions/Education and training/Educational attainment, outcomes and returns of education/Transition from education to work, early leavers from education and training"

Number of children with disabilities in education: total number of children with disabilities (see more in General definitions) in all types of schools both, general education schools (subordinated to the Ministry of Education) where children with disabilities are mainstreamed, and special schools (can be subordinated to the Ministry of Social Security), with special environments addressed to the needs of the children with disabilities.

Source of data: Ministry of Education, Ministry of Social Security

Public expenditure on education: Current and capital expenditure on education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities; household contributions are excluded. The information is reported directly to the TransMonEE by National Statistical Offices.